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Physical Therapy :: Knee Arthroscopy :: Total Knee Replacement
The Patella (the Knee Cap) :: Malalignment :: Viscosupplementation
Glucosamine and Chondroitin-Sulfate

The knee is one of the most common joints in which the arthroscope is used. The knee is very accessible and the joint is directly under the skin, so a small hole allows the scope to go directly into the knee.

Knee Arthroscopy Knee Arthroscopy Knee Arthroscopy

The modern arthroscope is very small allowing for placement through an incision about 1/8 inch. The tiny video camera connects to a high resolution video screen. Pictures and movies can be taken. These are before and after pictures of the undersurface of the patella (knee-cap). The first image shows damage and softening of the cartilage. The second is after shaving and use of the Oratec device.

The entire knee can be thoroughly examined through the arthroscope. Inside the knee, there are three layers of cartilage. Two of these layers are articular cartilage, which is a small layer of cartilage applied directly to the end of the bones and often referred to as the teflon of the knee.

Knee Arthroscopy

Normal articular cartilage and meniscal cartilage is very shiny and smooth. The cartilage in this knee is very healthy, but there is a traumatic tear of the meniscus.

In between these two layers of articular cartilage is the meniscal cartilage which is the cartilage that is often thought of when a torn cartilage in the knee is mentioned.

How does the Knee joint work?
Find out more in this web based movie.

Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint

Physical Therapy

Physical therapy is very important after knee surgery. We start with therapy immediately after surgery in the hospital. We often arrange for a therapist to see you in your home for a short time after your discharge from the hospital, but we encourage you to go to a physical therapist's facility when you are capable.

Find out more about Physical Therapy from the following links.

Physical Therapy    

Knee Arthroscopy

Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which an arthroscope is inserted into a joint. Arthroscopy is a term that comes from two Greek words, arthro-, meaning joint, and -skopein, meaning to examine.

The benefits of arthroscopy involve smaller incisions, faster healing, a more rapid recovery, and less scarring. Arthroscopic surgical procedures are often performed on an outpatient basis and the patient is able to return home on the same day.

Find out more about Knee Arthroscopy from the following links.

Knee Arthroscopy Knee Arthroscopy Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint

Total Knee Replacement

A total knee replacement (TKR) or total knee arthroplasty is a surgery that resurfaces an arthritic knee joint with an artificial metal or plastic replacement parts called the ‘prostheses'.

Find out more about Total Knee Replacement with the following links.

Knee Replacement Total Knee Replacement Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint


Dr. Clyburn has always had a keen interest in the patellofemoral joint. He recently published his experience with a meticulous technique of patella replacement.

Find out more about Patella with the following links.



Patellofemoral problems may be due to malalignment, injury, or softening of the patellar cartilage (chrondromalacia patella).

Find out more about Malalignment with the following links.



The natural lubricating fluid of the knee is a material called hyaluronate. This material is produced by the synovial lining of the knee and is a clear, oily substance. Unfortunately, in arthritis, the lubricating fluid becomes thin and inadequate. Interestingly, the hyaluronate salt is found in the comb of roosters.

Find out more about Viscosupplementation with the following links.


Glucosamine and Chondroitin-Sulfate

The natural building blocks of our cartilage are materials which are called glycosaminoglycans or GAG's, known as glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. Many years ago, it was found that thoroughbred racing horses that were given diets supplemented with glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate had less problems with their joints and a lower incidence of lameness.

Find out more about Glucosamine and Chondroitin-Sulfate with the following links.

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